The nature of seeds
The male stays close to female especially fertile females , probably to ensure that young are theirs i. The skull bones in adult birds are fused and do not have visible cranial sutures. They did not evolve directly from reptilian scales, as once was thought. How do they keep those skinny little feet of theirs warm while clinging to frozen branches? The details of some are questionable, but some, such as those of Sinornithosaurus and other basal dromaeosaurs, bear a resemblance to modern pennaceous feathers. This strategy is typical in old, nutrient-impoverished landscapes, such as those of southwestern Australia.
Evolution of Birds
Allergies can be treated by removing the allergen, administering antihistamines, and through the use of topical lotions when needed. Asthma can be treated with corticosteroids. Any cancerous tumors can be treated in a variety of ways, from surgical removal to radiation and chemotherapy.
While some causes can be easily treated, others, such as certain viruses, will be with your bird for life and may cause severe and life threatening complications. While vaccines are available for some infectious agents, they are more likely to help the other birds in the population by preventing them from becoming infected.
African gray flew away for 2 days storm and rain,we just got her back today she was 13 week old and still go her weening food I got her back and give her some water and 52cc of food now she is in her cage I hear a lil weezing what should I look for?
My African Grey 5 years old is having a lot of sneezing along with a sound of whizzing during sleep for about days. There is also lack of appetite. Please reccommend some remedy and oblige. My new budgie has been making this very random squeaking sound. I can't pin-point exactly why he's making the sound because I thought perhaps it was when he was moving or after he was running around - but he'll just be happy and playing and suddenly make a squeak or he'll squeak while he's sitting and looking around.
It's just this small like squeak that's not accompanied by any labored breathing or tail bobbing but I'm worried it might be an upper respiratory infection as we got him from a pet store and I heard those are really common in birds from pet stores. I also believe he might've just sneezed which has me extra worried.
Other than the possible sneeze and the random squeaks he's active, happy, curious, plays like no one's business - nothing is out of the ordinary except these two sounds.
Does my bird have a respiratory infection? I bought her when she was a baby, when I brought her home I noticed there was a yellowish discharged on her nostrils, and she was really inactive too, so I took her immediately to the vet. He said she had an respiratory infection and prescribed an antibiotic for her during 12 days, and that I should put in each nostrils every morning and evening.
She looked so much better after but the sneezing never stopped, I thought it was because of the baths that she took, because she takes probably 4 baths a day, but now, 4 months later she is becoming really inactive again and when she does a little bit of exercise she sneezes and breathes heavily with sounds, she eats and preens her feathers and gets out of cage to play but not as much as before.
Hi, I have a parakeet breathing heavily and doesn't really move like it used to move. I have veterinarian seen her and given antibiotics. I have given her the medication for almost 4 weeks now but she is getting worst.
What can I do with her. I can't affort her medical bill anymore. Respiratory Tract Infection in Birds Book in. Rated as Mild Condition. Causes Diagnosis Treatment Recovery Advice. First Walk is on Us! What is Respiratory Tract Infection? Book First Walk Free! Symptoms of Respiratory Tract Infection in Birds. Signs of respiratory distress include: Causes of Respiratory Tract Infection in Birds.
There are many causes of respiratory infections in birds. Diagnosis of Respiratory Tract Infection in Birds. Treatment of Respiratory Tract Infection in Birds. Recovery of Respiratory Tract Infection in Birds. You should, to be on the safe side, visit an Avian Veterinarian for a once over to check for any other symptoms and to receive any antibiotics or other treatment if indicated.
Add a comment to Scarlet's experience. Was this experience helpful? The interior distance from the roof to the floor of the nestbox. The feathers along the front of the body, from the neck down.
It is conducted in June. Data is used to make maps. Coordinated by the U. Long, stiff, specialized feathers that have sensory and protective functions. They have a stiff, tapered rachis with a few basal barbs. Semibristles have more side branches. Usually found on the head near mouth and eyes , also on toes of some owls. Most aerial insect eating birds have bristles and semi-bristles around their mouths, on woodpeckers they cover the nostrils.
Adult usually female protecting young walks along ground with wing drooped down, while quivering and vocalizing to distract predators e. An interaction between two species in which one species gains at the expense of the other. Can be intraspecific same species or interspecific other species. See obligate brood parasitism and egg dumping. A bare, flaccid patch of skin on the bird's belly region and sometimes part of the breast , where downy feathers either fall out, or are plucked out by the female just before she begins incubating.
It becomes engorged with blood vessels during breeding season, and works like a hot water bottle to transfer heat from the parent's body to the eggs.
An adaptive strategy which maximizes the number of healthy fledglings. When more eggs are produced than can be raised, and there is not enough food for all, later hatching young or runt s, which are weaker and smaller than nestmates, starve or are neglected or are attacked by siblings siblicide. Retrieval of cached food items is not accidental, as in scatterhoarding. For example, Black-capped Chickadees can remember the location of the stored food for up to a month after hiding it.
A vocalization used for alarms and contact. Generally shorter and simpler than songs. Especially important in birds that feed or migrate in flocks. Pitch high or low, rising or falling ; quality harsh, clear, liquid, buzzy, etc. The male and female duplicate each other's flight call in finches. Before being added to the official list of threatened or endangered species, there is a category of 'candidate.
Shining a light through an egg to see whether it is developing or not. Top of the crown. Carnivorous birds have strong, hooked beaks for tearing flesh and muscle. The ability of an ecosystem to support or sustain a certain population size before it becomes overpopulated.
It can be altered e. Extreme cases of all yellow birds, probably due to melano-carotenoid schizochroism e.
Seen occasionally, but not regularly occurring in a region. Not likely to be seen each year. Birds that use cavities already created, like Purple Martins and Tree Swallows.
A bird that nests in holes in trees or other structures, or in nestboxes. Also see primary and secondary cavity-nester.
Christmas Bird Count, conducted by citizen scientists and reported to the Audubon Society. Data is used to generate maps. See singular Cecum Cecum: Small side sacs near the end of the digestive tract in some birds that help with digestion, especially of fibrus plant foods.
Bacteria in the ceca further digest and ferment partially digsted foods into useable compounds absorbed through the cecal walls. This organ also produces antibiodies, aids water absorption and metabolism of uric acid into amino acids.
Replacing tail feathes, starting from innermost to outermost feathers as in most passerines. Fleshy area between the beak and face. The layer of the egg "white" that immediately surround the yolk. It is a firm but very thin layer of albumen. Dense brushy habitat of woody shrubs wtih small, thick evergreen leaves. Unique characters define closely related groups of species. Conservative characters don't change easily in the course of adaptation.
When a bird actively follows another bird with other aggressive behaviors before and during. An egg that has a broken shell or crack but the shell membranes are still intact and the contents are not leaking.
Horny material that farms part of the hard outer integument of insects, arachnids and crustaceans. Annual bird monitoring program done in late December and early January. Done by volunteers, coordinated by the National Audubon Society. A volunteer regardless of age, location, or experience involved in gathering data about our environment.
The source of much CBC data. It enables ornithologists to sort across taxa, and looks at primitive and derived characters. Used to grasp food and cling. The common cavity into which the intestinal, genital, and urinary tracts open in birds. Sperm are transferred when the male briefly touches his swollen, sperm-containing cloaca to the cloaca of a receptive female. Also called a set. Usually refers to gallinaceous birds like domestic chickens. Rear portion of the crown. Gathering nests, eggs or killing birds for science.
Controlled by the Migratory Bird Treaty Ac t. Federal and state permits, plus a project proposal, are now required before a scientist can collect birds. A species that nests in colonies. Color Morph or Phase: Certain species may have two or more variations in their plumage, presumably under genetic control.
For example, Snow Geese may exist in either the white or blue color phases. Color morphs are usually found mainly or exclusively in certain populations.
An unofficial name that is not the scientific name. For example, the common name of Sialia mexicana is the Western Bluebird. Several females place eggs in one nest, and all adults care for the young.
All tracts of feathers are rplaced in a short time. Compare to partial and zero paternity. Some people use it to mount a nestbox. Conical Baffle or Coolie Hat baffle - a cone shaped baffle placed on a mounting pole to deter climbing predators and snakes.
More info and instructions. Managing natural resource use, allocation, exploitation, and protection to maintain the health of the natural world or ecosystem. See conspecific or intraspecific brood parasitism egg dumping Conspecific Brood Parasitism: Usually have a long central shaft with a broad, flat vane on either side. Light underparts and dark upperparts of plumage disguise the outline of a bird, aiding in concealment.
The territory holder matches a neighbor or stranger's song phrase by phrase to establish territory boundaries. Non-parental adults, called extra-pair helpers, auxiliaries or supernumeraries, usually do not breed themselves. The physical act of mating. In most birds, the male lands on or climbs onto the back of the female, and then both birds touch their exposed cloacas together called the cloacal kiss.
The sperm from a Purple Martin is stored in the oviduct and can continue to fertilize ova for up to a month. When the female invites sex, e. Early in the breeding cycle, when male and female birds are choosing or bonding with their prospective mates.
Allofeeding may occur in some species like bluebirds. Also applies to the feathers covering the bird's ear region. The ability to flex or bend the upper half of the bill Zusi May be done by both males and females, may occur in association with other displays. A specialized organ that is an enlarged part of the oesophagus, where food is stored until it can be digested later.
Highly developed in seed-eating birds. BRAW term for boxes from feet to yards apart. Crural tract feathers on the lower leg Culmen: With regard to nest shape, a deep depression, with a rim height several times the diameter of the eggs. Cupping or Cup Molding: Female uses her chest and wings to form the cup in a nest.
I made this term up. Dawn Serenade or Dawnsong, Dawn Chorus: Organic pesticide, banned in the U. A nestbox primarily designed for looks e. May actually result in death e. A live House Sparrow used inside a ground trap to attract other House Sparrows. A tiny tick Ixodes sp. Same as natal philopatry.
May attract fire ants. Curved downward as in a bill. A digital camera with significant magnification capabilities, kind of like a binocular combined with a camera lens. Also see sexual dimorphism. Diurnal birds may still migrate at night. A measure of anxiety. For example, when a human checks a WEBL nest, the parent may go off on a perch and engage in bill-wiping. Ritualized signal intended to convey a specific message. Farther away from the center part of the body.
Are or range where a species is found. A nest not used for breeding, generally constructed by a male as in House Wrens. May or may not be used by the female who reconstructs it.
When constructed by House Wrens they lack a lined nest cup. May be used to attract females to territory, distract predators or nest-parasitizing birds like cowbirds. Taking a "dry bath" in a little dustbowl. Sometimes wings are extended, shuffled in the soft soil and brought upward full of dust, which lands on the fluffed-up body feathers. A hole in the bottom of a nestbox that allows water to leave the interior. Drip edge or Rain groove: Contract to " passenger hypothesis.
Used to communicate with members of the same species e. An egg that is smaller than usual not common. They often lack a yolk, and thus will not hatch. They may be more spherical than a normal egg, and have a thick, rough shell. Habitat created by juxtaposition of different habitats that merge together may be used by "edge" species like cowbirds.
An organism that lives on the surface outside of the body of a host organism to the detriment of this host. An example is a blow fly larva. It nourishes and protects the embryo. Oviparous animals are animals that lay eggs, with little or no other development within the mother. The egg may be stuck near the cloaca , or further inside. Egg bound is a reasonably common, and potentially serious, condition that can lead to infection or damage to internal tissue. The bound egg may be gently massaged out; failing this it may become necessary to break the egg in situ and remove it in parts.
If broken, the oviduct should be cleaned of shell fragments and egg residue to avoid damage or infection. Also see obligate brood parasitism - e.
A fun term coined on the Bluebird Nut forum for a female bird that is expecting. The hard calcium shell, secreted by the bird's shell gland, that surrounds and protects the ovum. It is porous, allowing oxygen in and carbon dioxide out.
An example of an active House Sparrow control method. A ground trap where the bird steps into a moving chamber which then drops down. If they want to get out of the chamber, they have to enter the trap. Long, normal or short almost round forms. For bird banding, handling a banded bird, alive or dead, or a report of a band subsequent to initial banding. States may have their own definitions. Warm-blooded, capable of maintaining high body tempreatures even when the ambient temperature varies.
Also see Scientific Names. Some species have a commonly occurring rufous form, e. A scientist practicing ethology is called an ethologist. Also see native paper wasp. A non-native wasp that builds a paper nest that usually hangs downward and has open cells on the bottom.
May build nests inside birdhouses. First found in the U. A humane death that is quick, effective and minimizes stress and suffering. Birds that make their own cavity for nesting. Birds taking off for migration. Grit helps birds pulverize this part. Individuals preferentially use a resource like a nestbox , thereby depriving others of its benefits. Also see Interference Competition. For a pair bonded bird e. Male bluebirds try to prevent this by guarding their mate. Fertilized egg resulted from an extra-pair copulation.
Carolina Wrens have a more prominent eye line than House Wrens. In bluebirds, juveniles have a white eye ring.
Also when birds are migrating, but due to weather conditions, stop and pile up in a few locations. Purple Martin landlords use these to catch young that prematurely fledge.
Parents will not feed nestlings unless they are up off the ground. Family names end in "-idae. Each region has characteristic birds. Also referred to as Avifaunas. One of the epidermal growths that collectively form plumage. See primaries , secondaries and coverts. Filamentous, soft, flexible and lightweight. A fully grown feather is dead, with no nerves, muscles or blood vessels beneath the outer surface. Types of feathers include contour, flight, down, semiplumes, filoplumes, bristles and powderdown.
Fecal glue or glop: May be associated with excessive consumption of earthworms. Sort of like a birdie diaper. Early sacs may be eaten by parents for extra nutrition as the very young nestlings can not completely digest their food. Parents can be seen removing them from nestboxes, and usually drop them away from the nest e. Tree Swallows may drop them in water.
Merging of sperm and ova. In birds, this takes place after copulation in the upper end of the female's oviduct. When birds fight, they often strike with spread wings, peck, scratch, and sometimes lock feet and hold their opponent's feathers in their bill.
Particularly found on the back of the neck. Four species of fire ants are found within the contiguous southeastern United States. The tropical fire ant, Solenopsis geminata Fabricius , and the southern fire ant, S. The act of leaving the nest. A young altricial bird that has left the nest. Young birds are said to have "fledged" when they have completely acquired their first true feathers and have left the nest. They may be referred to as "fledglings" from the time they leave the nest until they are completely independent of all parental care.
They often have short wings and a short tail. They may not be able to fly well. The long feathers of the wings and tail. An unattached adult not paired that may challenge a breeding bird for a nest site. Special terms may be applied to certain species - e. Aerial version of the wing-spreading or wing-threat display, where a bird e. Primarily by male during pair formation, or in aggressive context.
The way birds hunt or scout for food. Nonwoody, nongrassy plant species found in teh understory and ground layer - e. Part of the face above the eyes. Habitat dominated by trees. Maybe deciduous, conferous, mixed, open or true with a closed canopy at least 30 feet high Forest fragmentation: A morphologically distinct group of organisms taxon or unit of classification FoNS: Formula for nestling songbirds, used by licensed wildllife rehabbers.
A specialty wood cutting bit often used to make entrance holes in nestboxes. It rides on semi-circular spurs and produces a clean, flat bottom hole. Can be used with a drill press.
Better than a paddle bit or hole saw for a clean hole. Placing an egg or a baby bird in the nest of another bird of the same species in order to enable it to survive e.
Nesting must be at the same stage of development. When an individual, other than the genetic parent, provides care for the offspring of another parent of its own species or another species. Extension of the bill onto the forehead. It does not have moving parts, but instead has an entrance shaped like a cone that narrows at the end so birds can not exit.
A blanket of fur or "cotton" used to conceal eggs from predators or keep them warm when the female leaves the nest. Common with chickadees for eggs that are not being incubated. Base of the bill where the mandible join rictus. As a verb, when nestlings or females being courted open their beaks to be fed. A single male and single female are the parents of all young in a nesting. Genetic characteristics of an individual that do not vary with circumstances.
In the common binomial nomenclature, the name of an organism is composed of two parts: For example, the scientific name for the Western Bluebird is Sialia mexicana.
Sialia is the genus, mexicana is the species. The avian equivalent of molars. Less muscular in birds that eat softer foods like insects or fruit. Also sometimes called the ventriculus, crop or craw, although actually it is found AFTER the crop and proventriculus.
Lowermost ridge on lower mandible. The fruit of plants in the family Cucurbitaceae , with a hard shell. When properly dried, then can be used as a birdhouse, but can not be monitored or cleaned out. Plastic and ceramic gourds are used for Purple Martin houses.
Crushed oyster shells soluble grit can be offered mainly to provide a source of calcium. A trap used to catch House Sparrows and starlings that is placed on the ground or elevated. Different from an inbox or nestbox trap. One light band plus an adjacent dark band on a tail feather. It denotes 24 hours growth. Large deposits of bird feces. Results when the fertilized egg first divides, and the sex chromosomes separate abnormally, with ZW female chromosomes on one side, and ZZ male genotype on the other side.
Does not occur in mammals because hormones override the genetic differences on the right and left sides. Only permitted wildlife rehabbers are allowed to raise birds protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act.
Sometimes unsuccessful in species where the birds need intensive tutoring from parents to learn how to be independent. The large, opposable single rear toe on a bird's foot that helps a bird grip a branch. Bluebirds have three front-pointing digits, and one or hallux.
It is attached to the back of a nestbox, and then the other side is bent and inserted into conduit or PVC pipe. Hantavirus Four Corners also known as Muerto Canyon virus causes a rare but deadly pulmonary syndrome. The virus is transmitted by infected rodents through urine, droppings, or saliva. Sometimes used to make nestboxes , but a special saw is needed to cut it. Tough, stiff but bendable wire mesh that comes in a roll.
A baby bird breaks through the egg and is 'born. Number of eggs that hatch compare to fledging Hatchling: When bird approaches another species and assumes motionless posture with head bowed down, feathers of nape and crown raised. May be an invitation to preen, as in Cowbirds. Many birds scratch their heads with their feet.
Bluebird landlords who hover over nestboxes, micromanaging. Excessive intereference may short circuit learning by individuals and evolution of the species. Non-parents who aid in rearing young. Usually used for gallinaceous birds like chickens. Unlike mammals, female birds have two different sex chromosomes - Z and W. Back part of the crown. Comes in handy for squashing paper wasps and cleaning out boxes.
Fine gauge, flexible wire that can be used in place of monofilament to deter House Sparrows from nestboxes or feeders. Also used on a Magic Halo. When an older nestling crowds the nestbox entrance hole trying to snag all the food proffered by parents a made up word.
Sometimes called a Squirrel tooth-bender or hole protector. Placed around the entrance hole to a nestbox to prevent squirrels or woodpeckers from enlarging the hole. Often made out of metal. Different size holes can also be use to exclude larger birds called a hole restrictor. Area occupied and defended during nonbreeding season vs. Varies by species and also depends on habitat e. The organism from which a parasite obtains nourishment and shelter.
Hover or Hover foraging: Flying somewhat stationary in midair like a helicopter while rapidly beating wings. Mountain Bluebirds hover while hunting and then drop to the ground. An inbox trap designed by Joe Huber that uses a flat plate of steel attached to a trip rod.
Humeral trac t feathers: The offspring of parents of two different species. Hybrids can be extremely variable - even siblings within a single brood can look quite different from each other. Most hybrid species are fertile. A long complex of bones e. Can result in death. Common cause of nestling death during extended periods of cold, rainy weather. For bird banding, a young bird capable of sustained flight known to have hatched during the same calendar year in which it was banded.
It typically involves an animal or person learning the characteristics of some stimulus, which is therefore said to be "imprinted" onto the subject. The period during which the adult bird starts sitting on eggs to warm them until they hatch.
In some species, the male brings the female food while she is incubating. Incubation is not continuous - birds occasionally leave the nest to defecate, etc. Depending on the species, may be the female only as in bluebirds or both male and female as in House Sparrows.
When a species can be induced to continue laying by daily egg removal or to lay fewer eggs when extra eggs are added to the nest during laying. Adult kills babies not for food , an uncommon behavior in birds. For a bird, sterile - unable to reproduce e. For an egg, has not been fertilized. An organism that eats insects. Insert or Inbox Trap: May indicate that they should be treated as a single species.
An individual's activities prevent use of a resource by other individuals. Also see Exploitative Competition. An example is HOSP destroying nests of other birds.
Within members of the same species , as in competition for a nest site. Rainbow-like multi-colored play of light on feathers - e. It controls the amount of light that enters the eye.
Irrupt or irruption invasion: In birds, refers to unusually large numbers of non-migratory birds moving out of their typical nesting range.
International Union for Conservation of Nature - a network of members and more than governmetn and NGO member organizations and volunteer scientists. A feeder with metal or wooden dowels looks like prison cell bars on the sides to allow entry only to smaller birds. Nasonia vitripennis , a beneficial insect that wasp drills a small hole into the blow fly pupal and deposits an egg. The wasp larva then consumes the larva. A Purple Martin nestling that falls out of the nest prematurely, perhaps to escape heat or parasites.
Feathers on a juvenile bird after down feathers are lost. In birds, young that are not sexually mature. They may have different plumage or markings than adults. A section of stovepipe, a round piece of hardware cloth, and two strips of hanging iron, a pipe-mounted nestbox guard that stops most climbing predators including snakes. Kingworm or King mealworm: Purple Martins are notorious for this behavior. The person who supplies nesting houses to birds and successfully hosts them.
Lard is an animal fat produced from the fatty or otherwise unusable parts of pig carcasses. It can be used to make suet. The larva can look completely different from the adult form e. Usually in italic font. Leading edge of wing: This is more scarce than a partial albino.
Parasites that live in the birds feathers. There are more than species, including chewing lice, louse flies and feather mites. Threads are archived by topic. A device that traps creatures but does not kill them - e. The region between the eye and bill on the side of a bird's head, used for ID. The section of the oviduct where albumen is added to the egg. Maintenance of a trail: For example, includes replacing a cracked, leaking roof. Management of a trail: Monitoring boxes regularly, and maintaining the nestboxes.
The lower portion of the bill, or lower mandible. The upper mandible, or maxilla, is a flattened, hollow bony cone reinforced by bony struts called trabeculae. The male stays close to female especially fertile females , probably to ensure that young are theirs i.
The larval form of Tenebrio molitor , or the darkling beetle. Caused by an excess of dark brown or black pigments. Can be caused by a genetic mutaion or sometimes diet.
Some species have a naturally occuring melanic form or " morph. In metabolism, substances are broken down to yield energy, or synthesized. Pipe used for electrical wiring, also used for mounting nestboxes. Parts of a broader habitat type that are used by an individual during the course of its daily activities.
Proso millet Panicum miliaceum is often included in inexpensive bird seed mixtures. Not all birds migrate - e. Sometimes migration is moving between elevations between mountains and adjacent lowlands as in Western Bluebirds.
Migratory Bird Treaty Act: A federal law that made it illegal to hunt, capture, ill possess, sip or sell migratory birds, nests and eggs. It does not extend to House Sparrows or starlings. Two different species in one nest e. When birds gang up on another species to harass and drive away predators or intruders- e. The process of dropping old feathers and growing new ones in their place.
Most birds molt at least once a year, often in late summer. Also see prebasic molt. The goal is to increase the likelihood of successful fledging.
May or may not be considered to include maintenance of nestboxes. Fishing line, used to deter House Sparrows from nestboxes or feeders. A naturally occuring melanistic form. This plumage variation is distinctive in certain species, and is retained throughout the bird's life.
It is not related to age or sex. Number of birds dying in a defined time period usually 12 mos. Complement to Survival Rate. Putting up a nestbox e. Birds like Barn and Cliff Swallows that build nests out of m ud. A nestbox with more than one entrance hole, designed to improve ventilation, attractiveness, or escape options.
A flock of European starlings can number a million or more Mycoplasmal conjunctivitis: An eye disease that strikes House Finches. North American Bluebird Society. The part of the beak located between the bill and skull. Movement away from where a bird is born to where it breeds.
The fluffy feathers on hatchlings. They get pushed out by incoming juvenal pennaceous feathers in the first few weeks. A few wisps may remain attached to the incoming feathers e. Tendency of young to come back to the area where they were born. See delayed dispersal Native: May be a factor with HOSP fear of sparrow spookers , magic halos and monofilament. Natal down feathers e. When a bird attempts to reproduce, usually only counting when at least one egg is laid.
A birdhouse where cavity-nesters build a nest. Some people write this as two words nest box. A video camera used for viewing activities inside a nestbox.
Also called a nestbox camera. Replacing a nest that is wet, or infested with blow flies etc. With regard to construction, the interior part of the nest where eggs are laid.
In some nests e. Early in breeding season, male shows female a cavity clings to outside, looks inside repeatedly. A baby bird still in the nest. NestWatch - Cornell Lab of Ornithology database on nesting birds including cavity nesters. Precocial young leaving the nest soon after hatching - e. Looks like a tiny, white capsule. When they are on the head area, the bird cannot pick them off.
Of, relating to, occurring or active at night - e.