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A definition of animals

Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis (DISH or Forestier's Disease)
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The animal kingdom

Your Bones

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All of the bones of the body can be broken down into five types: The long bones of the body contain many distinct regions due to the way in which they develop. At birth, each long bone is made of three individual bones separated by hyaline cartilage.

The epiphyses and diaphysis grow towards one another and eventually fuse into one bone. Once the long bone parts have fused together, the only hyaline cartilage left in the bone is found as articular cartilage on the ends of the bone that form joints with other bones. The articular cartilage acts as a shock absorber and gliding surface between the bones to facilitate movement at the joint. Looking at a bone in cross section, there are several distinct layered regions that make up a bone.

The outside of a bone is covered in a thin layer of dense irregular connective tissue called the periosteum. The periosteum contains many strong collagen fibers that are used to firmly anchor tendons and muscles to the bone for movement. Stem cells and osteoblast cells in the periosteum are involved in the growth and repair of the outside of the bone due to stress and injury. Blood vessels present in the periosteum provide energy to the cells on the surface of the bone and penetrate into the bone itself to nourish the cells inside of the bone.

The periosteum also contains nervous tissue and many nerve endings to give bone its sensitivity to pain when injured. Deep to the periosteum is the compact bone that makes up the hard, mineralized portion of the bone.

Compact bone is made of a matrix of hard mineral salts reinforced with tough collagen fibers. Many tiny cells called osteocytes live in small spaces in the matrix and help to maintain the strength and integrity of the compact bone.

Deep to the compact bone layer is a region of spongy bone where the bone tissue grows in thin columns called trabeculae with spaces for red bone marrow in between. The trabeculae grow in a specific pattern to resist outside stresses with the least amount of mass possible, keeping bones light but strong.

Long bones have a spongy bone on their ends but have a hollow medullary cavity in the middle of the diaphysis. The medullary cavity contains red bone marrow during childhood, eventually turning into yellow bone marrow after puberty. An articulation, or joint, is a point of contact between bones, between a bone and cartilage, or between a bone and a tooth. Synovial joints are the most common type of articulation and feature a small gap between the bones. This gap allows a free range of motion and space for synovial fluid to lubricate the joint.

Fibrous joints exist where bones are very tightly joined and offer little to no movement between the bones. Fibrous joints also hold teeth in their bony sockets. Finally, cartilaginous joints are formed where bone meets cartilage or where there is a layer of cartilage between two bones. These joints provide a small amount of flexibility in the joint due to the gel-like consistency of cartilage.

The bones of the axial skeleton act as a hard shell to protect the internal organs—such as the brain and the heart —from damage caused by external forces. The bones of the appendicular skeleton provide support and flexibility at the joints and anchor the muscles that move the limbs.

The bones of the skeletal system act as attachment points for the skeletal muscles of the body. Almost every skeletal muscle works by pulling two or more bones either closer together or further apart.

Joints act as pivot points for the movement of the bones. The regions of each bone where muscles attach to the bone grow larger and stronger to support the additional force of the muscle.

In addition, the overall mass and thickness of a bone increase when it is under a lot of stress from lifting weights or supporting body weight. Red bone marrow produces red and white blood cells in a process known as hematopoiesis. Red bone marrow is found in the hollow space inside of bones known as the medullary cavity.

The amount of red bone marrow drops off at the end of puberty, replaced by yellow bone marrow. The skeletal system stores many different types of essential substances to facilitate growth and repair of the body. Here, we are discussing some facts of this amazing system. There are unlimited numbers of cells in human nervous system, according to an estimate they are more than the stars in Milky Way. In human brain only, there are nearly billion neurons.

In human, brain control is in contrast i. The rate of neuron development decrease with the age, as it is almost zero in adults. When a child is developing inside the womb of her mother, the rate of neuron development is , neurons per minute. At the time of birth, he will have around 10 million nerve cells. Weight of brain is different in male and female. In males it is around g, while in female the weight of brain is around g. As we grow up, we lose almost one gram of brain weight per year.

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